The International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage (ICID) established in 1950 is the leading scientific, technical and not-for-profit Non-Governmental Organization (NGO).
Mexican National Committee on Irrigation and Drainage (MXCID)
México City, México
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It is widely acknowledged that in order to ensure food security for a burgeoning global population, there is a need to usher in second Green Revolution in many developing countries. Under the new post-2015 sustainable development regime to be adopted shortly by the UN General Assembly, the second green revolution will have to follow a different trajectory of food production, avoiding the pitfalls of the first green revolution such as intensive use of chemicals and water in food production. The second green revolution will have to be based on frugal use of water and zero tolerance on environmental degradation. It will have to depend on higher per unit of water productivity, principles of better irrigation and drainage services, and appropriate harnessing of the new technologies.
With the above background, it gives me great pleasure to invite you to the 23rd International Congress on Irrigation and Drainage to deliberate on the theme “Modernizing Irrigation and Drainage for a new Green Revolution”. The 23rd Congress together with the 68th International Executive Council (IEC) will be hosted by our Mexican National Committee MXCID from 8-14 October 2017 at Mexico City, Mexico.
MXCID, with their parent organization CONAGUA, have held many a successful water related events in the past, the most recent and impressive being the 4th World Water Forum in 2006. It is with this background, I anticipate an exceptionally well-organized and successful 23rd ICID Congress and 68th meeting of IEC in Mexico City in 2017.
Mexico has demonstrated a strong vision of water management for food production and environmental protection based on sound water management principles that have fuelled economic prosperity and overall national development. Mexico City is one of the world’s most important centers of archaeology and urban architecture, with 23 World Heritage sites designated by UNESCO. The International Exhibition & Convention Center at World Trade Center in Mexico City, the venue of our meetings, is one of the largest exhibition centers in the country.
I am sure that this is a great opportunity for all of us to not only participate in the Congress and IEC meetings, but also to visit and learn from the many models of irrigation and drainage success stories in Mexico. At this moment, I am reminded of the very successfully organized ICID’s 7th Congress and 20th IEC hosted by MXCID in April 1969. I can assure you that this time also, our colleagues in MXCID will succeed in scaling the benchmark set by them for international water fraternity, by organizing very successful 23rd ICID Congress rich in all respects -- technically, culturally, and socially.
Once again I extend a warm invitation to all of you to Mexico City and look forward to seeing you there.
Dr. Saeed Nairizi
Mexico is a country with unique hydrometeorological conditions. Our territory is part of the large desert strip, which makes us prone to severe droughts in three fourths of the country, whilst at the same time we are exposed to the impact of tropical cyclones and other phenomena that on the one hand makes us vulnerable to flooding and on the other one it give us much of the water we use.
Which is why we have built a hydraulic tradition of more than 500 years of history that started at the pre-Hispanic era with the construction of the levee of Nezahualcoyotl and which continues to this day, where climate change has brought new water challenges.
On irrigation, it was particularly at the dawn of last century when a major agricultural revolution was driven through the construction of modern infrastructure to enable administer, manage and harness water more efficiently and productively.
Because of this joint effort of all levels of government, and the hydro-agricultural users, Mexico ranks sixth among countries with the largest arable land. We count on 22 million productive hectares, nearly half of which feature seasonal and technological advanced irrigation infrastructure.
During the administration of President Enrique Peña Nieto, a further boost to the construction of more infrastructure of this nature has been triggered, as well as to the conservation, modernization and technification of the existing one.
Only in the last 3 years, we have benefited more than one million irrigated hectares, which has enabled us to consolidate significant successful cases such as the Irrigation District 001 Arteaga Pavilion in Aguascalientes that now controls water with top-notch technology, from the source until it arrives at the plant supplying the precise volume required according to the type of crop, achieving 98% of water productivity efficiency.
And we will continue driving this type of infrastructure works, through subsidised programmes, joining forces with local users and governments. These actions are being reinforced with the implementation of measures in order to move from reactive schemes in the face of hydrometeorological contingencies to risks prevention and mitigation strategies.
In this regard, the creation of a new approach in dam management by reconciling the productive demand with drought prevention to ensure the supply for all uses up to two years, even without rainfall, stands out.
These are just some of the actions undertaken in our country and we would like share them with you while we learn from your experiences.
Thus, It will be in our great pleasure to welcome you all in Mexico City in October 2017, hosting the 23rd ICID Congress and 68th IEC on the theme: "Modernising Irrigation and Drainage for a new Green Revolution."
We are confident that as in the 7th edition of the Congress held in Mexico in 1969, the work to be carried out will be of great relevance to improving water productivity in irrigation.
You will be more than welcome to Mexico, our doors are always open for you!
Mr. Roberto Ramírez de la Parra
Mr. Roberto Ramírez de la Parra
President of the MXCID
The International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage (ICID) established in 1950 is the leading scientific, technical and not-for-profit Non-Governmental Organization (NGO). ICID, through its network of professionals spread across more than a hundred countries, has facilitated sharing of experiences and transfer of water management technology for over half-a-century. ICID supports capacity development, stimulates research and innovation and strives to promote policies and programs to enhance sustainable development of irrigated agriculture through a comprehensive water management framework.
The mission of ICID is to stimulate and promote the development and application of the arts, sciences and techniques of engineering, agriculture, economics, acological and social sciences in managing water and land resources for irrigation, drainage, flood management, for archieving sustainable agriculture water management. ICID is dedicated to enhance the world wide supply of food and fibre for all people and believes that foodsecurity at various levels: global, national, local and household, and provision of assured livelihood starts with stable agriculture production ICID encourages public private partnership in development and management of water resources.
The worldwide population is expected to rise to 9.6 billion by 2050. In order to feed this growing population agricultural production will need to keep pace and increased by 60 percent (and nearly by 100 percent in developing countries) over the 2005-2007 base. Another Green Revolution is therefore called for. However, this time around the green revolution would have to be integrated and more inclusive in terms of optimal use of resources, both land and water; reducing the risks of climate variability and change by provision of equitable and reliable irrigation services thereby enhancing agriculture productivity and preserving the ecosystem. It is estimated that 85 percent of projected food demand in 2050 could be met by bridging the gap between the actual and potential yield of both rain-fed as well as irrigated agriculture.
Under these challenging requirements, irrigated agriculture faces a number of challenges. Low efficiency of irrigation systems, rapid growth of demand for water from other sectors such as urban, industrial and energy sectors are just a couple of major concerns. Efforts to ensure sustainable agriculture water management would require improving performance of irrigation systems through modernisation and revitalisation; adoption of modern technology and improved irrigation techniques leading to water saving to satisfy needs of other competing sectors or expansion of irrigation; conservation, recycle and reuse of water and so on. While doing so the consumption of energy, which is one of the crucial inputs, has to be factored in order to ensure more income per drop of water to the farmers.
Theme of 23rd Congress “Modernizing Irrigation and Drainage for a new Green Revolution” is expected to address these issues in the form of two questions.
Energy drives the processes involved in food production - to pump water from groundwater or surface water sources, to power tractors and irrigation machinery, and to process and transport agricultural goods. Increasing food production by 60 percent will require an increase in energy consumption in agriculture by 84 percent. Policies in energy and water sector influence each other and food production. Energy subsidies play a significant role in low irrigation inefficiencies. The advent of liquid biofuels as a source of fuel for transport added a new and complex dimension to the water–energy–land and therefore food nexus. Thus, water, energy and food are inextricably linked. The subsidized treatment for the growth of biofuels to gain greater security for energy for transport is at the cost of water for food. The critical link of bio-fuels with water security is ultimately whether growing crops for fuel competes for limited water and land with growing food for human consumption.
Water productivity which in simplistic terms is referred to as ‘crop production’ per unit ‘amount of water used’ focuses on ‘producing more food with the same amount of water resources’ or ‘producing the same amount of food with less water resources’. Water productivity gains in agriculture can secure water resources for other uses including for ecosystem services. Integrated land and water management at the watershed scale is key to improving the water productivity and enabling sustainable water resource management. Targeted policy actions are needed to support this. Since water-energy-food nexus affects agriculture water productivity, there is need to revisit the concept of water productivity in its entirety.
While modernising large irrigation systems, lining of canal forms a major component with the objective to save water that is lost between the source and the field. However, it is often argued that such an approach does not actually save water as the water that seeps through the canal finds its way to the groundwater and is ultimately available for use further downstream. The argument needs to be passed through the energy lens to present a more comprehensive picture.
Various water saving measures such as improved water management, effective real-time operation of water released, soil conservation and aquifer recharge, conjunctive use of surface and groundwater and recycling of used water have repercussions on the energy consumption and the economic viability of the measure. Therefore, in order to improve irrigation services through modernization of irrigation and drainage systems there is need to revisit the water productivity, water saving and water security concepts through the prism of water-food-energy interlinkages and identify associated challenges explore opportunities.
60.1 Emerging issues and challenges of water saving, including impact of transferring water out of agriculture
60.2 Understanding water productivity, water and energy use efficiency and water footprint of crops
60.3 Water security for growth and development
Irrigation systems are often designed to maximize efficiencies and minimize labour and capital requirements. While investing in modernization of irrigation system questions that will address the issue of increased productivity revolve around when to irrigate, how much to apply, and can the efficiency be improved. The degree of automation considered, depends on various technical, social and economic factors which need to be considered. Options for design of irrigation systems undergoing modernization are influenced by the extent of information that one can have at his disposal, its interpretation and reaching out at the optimal solutions.
Technology plays an important role in all types of water applications that are in use at present such as flood and furrow irrigation, micro irrigation system (drip and sprinkler) both pressurised and non-pressurised presenting a number of option. Precision irrigation presents a great potential as only the water that is required for evapotranspiration and used by the plant for gainful purposes, at a time and in quantity that is optimal for its growth can be applied. It is based on monitoring the health parameters of the plant and the field soil moisture condition and its topographical variations.
It is essential to adopt a cost effective and efficient irrigation application technique suited to a particular situation through the use of technology. However, while deciding the use of technologies, factors like type of crops, topography, agro-climatic zones; and the socio-economic aspects and cost effectiveness etc have to be taken into account. While selecting appropriate technologies based on the prevalent socio-economic conditions, considerations must be given on its affordability and adaptability.
61.1 Adopting precision irrigation and improving surface irrigation to combat water scarcity
61.2 Using ICT, remote sensing, control systems and modelling for improved performance of irrigation systems
61.3 Adaptability and affordability of new technologies under different socio-economic scenarios
Irrigation techniques for reuse of wastewater in agriculture and its impact on health and environment
Global Review of institutional reforms in irrigation sector for sustainable agriculture water management, including water users associations. (For the Symposium only selected countries are invited to present their papers (including Latin-American countries). However, participation is open to all countries).
Water Use in food value chains
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